Air Emissions and Stacks

Air emissions are the gases and/or particulates that are released from the combination, decomposition, or combustion of materials. These can include radon gas, volatile organic compounds, chlorine and other toxic gases, and petroleum vapors. Stacks are the outlet of emissions from tanks, machines, and other avenues for gases to escape when they are created. These emissions can be harmful to people and the environment and represent an environmental risk.



The area impacted by stack emissions is called the “plume rose.” It takes the proper pre-emissions treatment equipment and monitoring to keep the roses smelling sweet.

Emissions can cause harm to a person if they are inhaled or if they build up in a poorly ventilated areas. Emissions from Underground Storage Tanks (USTs) that have damaged vent stacks or product lines may accumulate in basements.  In addition to a broken stack allowing air emissions to accumulate in plume rose areas, a stack retrofitted with a venturi or other scrubber or filter can also be used to clean the air emissions. If a filter is clogged or broken however, particulates are emitted directly into the environment.

Air Testing, Monitoring Services, Gas Management Services

Federated Environmental offers full service management of industrial regulated gas production and emissions, including both basic boiler emissions to chemical process emissions. In accordance with the federal Clean Air Act (CAA), Federated Environmental has the regulatory knowledge, expertise, and experience to test emissions, provide explanations as the facility’s status, provide recommendations on how to avoid “non-attainment” criteria under state regulations, design new systems and/or modify current emissions systems, and design and install monitoring systems on existing stacks. In addition, Federated Environmental offers design support for new facilities.

In addition, several Federated Environmental associates have completed the following federal EPA training course given by the U.S. EPA Air Pollution Institute (Research Triangle Park, NC): Atmospheric Sampling, Air Pollution Control Orientation Course, Diagnosing Vegetation Injury Caused by Air Pollution, Basic Air Pollution Meteorology, and Air Dispersion Models – Fundamental Concepts.

Emissions Stack Testing

Federated Environmental offers specific stack emissions testing for ll of the emissions prohibited under the federal Clean Air Act, as well as others that may represent a potential environmental risk to the operation of your facility. The testing procedure includes capture of emissions at the source using a variety of sample collection devices. All of the samples are collected using EPA protocols, and analyzed by a certified laboratory. Federated Environmental can test stack emissions for virtually all parameters. However, the most common analyses tested include the following:

  • Total Suspended Particles with Micronometic Sizing
  • Sulfur Dioxide and Nitrogen Compounds (NOₓ)
  • Carbon Monoxide
  • Volatile Organic Compounds and Hydrocarbons
  • Ozone
  • Ringelmann Number Calculation For Equivalent Opacity

Federated Environmental offers full testing services for these regulated emissions whether that result from abrasive (sanding or grinding), erosion, impaction or percussion (crushing processes), condensation (when hot gases cool and become fumes), combustion (incineration), or chemical processes. All of the testing is performed in accordance with the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and National Ambient Air Quality Standards for PM10.

Federated Environmental uses the following procedures to collect, analyze, and monitor the following various regulated emissions:

  • Total Suspended Particulates – Cascade and Dichotomous Impactor/Modified High Volume Sampler (Hi-Vol)
  • Sulfur dioxide – Manual Colorimetric Method/Flame Photometric Method
  • Ozone – Chemiluminescence/Ultraviolet Absorption (no monitoring)
  • Oxides of Nitrogen and Hydrocarbons – Flame Ionization Method
  • Carbon monoxide – Non-Dispersive Infrared (NDIR) Detection
  • Odors – Plexiglass and Carbon Scentometer

Stack Emissions Control System Design & Installation

Federated Environmental can offer stack emissions control design and installation for virtually all emissions containments of concern. The specific systems most commonly used include the following:

  •  Total Suspended Particulates – Settling Chambers, Cyclone Separators, Low/High Energy Wet Scrubbers, Fabric Filtration (baghouses), and Electrostatic Precipitation.
  • Criteria Air Pollutants (SO2, NOₓ, CO, O3, hydrocarbons) – Cross-Flow Scrubbers with Demisters, Vapor Returns, and Adsorption

To assist in the proper design of these systems, several Federated Environmental staff members have completed the following federal EPA training course given by the U.S. EPA Air Pollution Institute (Research Triangle Park, NC): Particulate Emissions Control, Gaseous Emission Control, Sources and Control of Volatile Organic Pollutants, and Air Pollution Field Enforcement.